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  • Microparticles for simulating fish egg dispersion and recruitment

    Posted on November 16th, 2011 Microsphere Expert

    Understanding survival and mortality of fish in the early life stages has been a fundamental issue in biology and a central problem in fisheries oceanographic study for more than a century. It has been argued that most marine fishes begin life as an egg that floats in the sea, and, during their evolutionary history, the early life of fishes has surely been shaped to ensure the “continued existence of species” by the sheer pressure of natural selection, and stated that a fish to survive must deal with and exploit its physical and biological environments. However, although we are now in the 21st Century, there still remains a lot to be made scientifically clear in the early life of fishes. In the present lecture, I will talk about fundamental issues in the isolated floating eggs of marine fish, which many pelagic species spawn in thousands, millions, or sometimes almost billions during a life of an individual female. The topics contain description and discussion on the egg size, buoyancy and rising speed. Measurements on the eggs naturally spawned in aquaculture systems are firstly introduced. Several examples of egg vertical distribution, accumulation and dispersion observed through field surveys will be shown to consider how the egg size and buoyancy are adaptive to survive in the pelagic environment.1

    UVPMS-BG 180-212um - 40x MagnificationScientists who study fish require artificial micro-particles to simulate fish eggs and their dispersion behavior in water. In order to accurately simulate the dispersion of fish eggs it is important to use particles of the proper size and buoyancy/density. Particles with accurate size ranges and densities are now available from Cospheric LLC. Densities from 1.00g/cc up to 1.12 g/cc are available in size ranges from 10-27um on up to 0.85-1.0mm. Sea water particles of 1.025g/cc (UVPMS-BG-1.025), and fresh water beads of 1.00g/cc are in stock and available for quick delivery.

    Most fish eggs are in the size of 0.5-5mm1 with the typical size of 1mm being the most common.   Salt water fish eggs tend to be slightly less dense than medium saltwater at a density of about 1.020g/cc1.

    Some Examples of fish egg sizes are:

    • Salmo salar (Salmon)  – ~0.93 mm3
    • Sardinops melanostictus (Japanese Sardine) ~1.5 mm1
    • Engraulis japonicus (Japanese Anchovie) ~0.8 mm1
    • Acanthopagrus schlegeli (Black sea breem / black porgy) ~0.87mm1
    • Pagrus major (Red sea breem / madai) ~0.89mm1
    • Oplegnathus fasciatus (striped beakfish) ~0.90mm1
    • Inimicus japonicus (Stonefish) ~1.34mm1
    • Morone Saxatilis (Striped Bass) ~4mm2

    More Complete Tables of Fish Egg Sizes Derived from T. B. BAGENAL follow

    Marine species of fish with planktonic eggs4
    Min Dia.
    (mm)
    Mean Dia.
    (mm)
    Max Dia.
    (mm)
    Engraulis encrasicolus 0.70 0.95 1.20
    Sardina pilchardus 1.50 1.65 1.80
    Sprattus sprattus 0.82 1.02 1.23
    Argentina silus 3.00 3.25 3.50
    Argentina sphyraena 1.70 1.78 1.85
    Merlangius merlangus 0.97 1.14 1.32
    Trisopterus Iuscus 0.97 1.10 1.23
    Trisopterus esmarkii 1.00 1.06 1.13
    Trisopterus minutus 0.95 1.01 1.07
    Pollachius pollachius 1.10 1.16 1.22
    Pollachius virens 1.03 1.12 1.22
    Gadus morhua 1.16 1.38 1.60
    Melanogrammus aeglefinus 1.19 1.43 1.67
    Brosme brosme 1.26 1.39 1.52
    Physis blennoides 0.80 0.84 0.88
    Merluccius merluccius 0.94 0.98 1.03
    Molva molva 0.97 1.05 1.13
    Raniceps raninus 0.75 0.83 0.91
    Capros aper 0.90 0.95 1.01
    Trachurus trachurus 0.81 0.93 1.04
    Mullus surmuletus 0.81 0.86 0.91
    Ctenolabrus rupestris 0.73 0.83 0.94
    Trachinus vipera 0.98 1.13 1.28
    Trachinus draco 0.94 1.02 1.11
    Scomber scombrus 0.97 1.18 1.38
    Callionymus lyra 0.69 0.81 0.94
    Trigla spp. 1.10 1.35 1.60
    Scophthalmus maximus 0.91 1.05 1.19
    Scophthalmus rhombus 1.16 1.34 1.51
    Zeugopterus punctatus 0.92 1.00 1.07
    Phrynorhombus regius 0.90 0.94 0.98
    Phrynorhombus norvegicus 0.73 0.85 0.98
    Lepidorhornbus whifiagonis 1.07 1.14 1.22
    Arnoglossus spp. 0.58 0.67 0.76
    Limanda limanda 0.66 0.82 0.98
    Platichthys jlesus 0.82 0.98 1.13
    Pleuronectes platessa 1.66 1.93 2.20
    Microstomus kitt 1.13 1.29 1.45
    Glyptocephalus cynoglossus 1.07 1.16 1.25
    Hippoglossoides platessoicles 1.38 2.44 3.50
    Hippoglossus hippoglossus 3.00 3.63 4.25
    Pegusa lascaris 1.36 1.37 1.38
    Solea solea 0.95 1.27 1.58
    Buglossidium luteurn 0.69 0.81 0.94
    Microchirus variegatus 1.28 1.32 1.36
    Lophius piscatorius 2.13 2.24 2.36
    Marine fish with demersal eggs4
    Min Dia.
    (mm)
    Mean Dia.
    (mm)
    Max Dia.
    (mm)
    Agonus cataphractus 1.70 1.80 1.90
    My ocephalus scorpius 1.50 1.75 2.00
    Ammodytes sp. 0.70 0.75 0.80
    Taurulus bubalis 1.70 1.80 1.90
    Blenniris ocellaris 1.12 1.16 1.20
    Species of Freshwater Fish4
    Min Dia.
    (mm)
    Mean Dia.
    (mm)
    Max Dia.
    (mm)
    Esox Iucius 2.50 3.60 4.70
    Cyprinus carpio 1.26 2.78 4.30
    Abramis brama 1.57 3.94 6.30
    Tinca tinca 1.00 2.95 4.90
    Gobio gobio 1.30 2.65 4.00
    Rutilus rutilus 1.90 3.59 5.29
    Scardinills erythrophthalrnus 1.36 1.43 1.50
    Phoxinus phoxinus 1.50 3.25 5.00
    Leuciscus leuciscus 2.00 3.00 4.00
    Noemacheilus barbatulus 1.00 2.50 4.00
    Pungitius pungitius 1.50 2.35 3.20
    Gasterostcus aculentu s 1.50 1.65 1.80
    Salmo salar 5.00 3.75 2.50
    Oncorhynchcis gorbiischa 4.50 3.00 1.50
    Cyprinus carpio 0.90 0.85 0.80
    Ferca fluvialitis 2.00 1.50 1.00
    Salvio salar (Norway) 5.30 3.65 2.00
    Salvio salar (USA) 5.40 3.70 2.00
    Salrno triitta 4.70 5.35 6.00
    Salino clarki 4.30 4.70 5.10
    Oncorhynchus tshnwyschn 6.30 7.10 7.90
    CriJtivonier namaycush 4.90 5.15 5.40
    Salvelinus fontinalis 4.00 4.20 4.40
    Oncorhynchus nerkn 5.29 5.94 6.60
    Phoxinus phoxinus 1.50 1.65 1.80
    Salmo snlar 5.00 6.00 7.00
    Salmo frutta 4.00 4.75 5.50
    Salvelinus alpinus 4.00 4.25 4.50
    Thyrnallus thymiallus 3.20 3.60 4.00
    Coregonus albula 1.80 2.05 2.30
    &ox lucius 2.50 2.75 3.00
    Cyprinus carpio 1.50 1.75 2.00
    Lota lofa 0.80 1.15 1.50
    Stizostedioii luciopercci 1.00 1.25 1.50
    Perca fluvialitih 2.00 2.25 2.50
    Cottus gobio 2.00 2.25 2.50
    Various Marine fish4
    Min Dia.
    (mm)
    Mean Dia.
    (mm)
    Max Dia.
    (mm)
    Sprattus sprattus 0.81 1.02 1.23
    Argentina sphyraena 1.70 1.77 1.84
    Merlangius merlangus 0.96 1.14 1.33
    Trisopterus esmarkii 1.00 1.06 1.13
    Trisopterus minutus 0.90 0.98 1.07
    Gadus morhua 1.15 1.38 1.60
    Melanogrammus aeglefinus 1.19 1.43 1.67
    Molva molva 0.97 1.08 1.20
    Ctenolabrus rupestris 0.73 0.89 1.06
    Callionymus lyra 0.69 0.81 0.94
    Trigla spp. 1.10 1.36 1.61
    Scophthalmus maximus 0.91 1.05 1.19
    Zeugopterus punctatus 0.90 0.99 1.08
    Limanda limanda 0.66 0.83 1.00
    Pleuronectes platessa 1.16 1.68 2.20
    Microstomus kilt 1.13 1.31 1.48
    Glyptocephalus cynoglossus 1.07 1.23 1.38
    Solea solea 0.95 1.27 1.58
    Buglossidium luteutn 0.69 0.81 0.94
    Micvochirus variagatus 1.28 1.35 1.42

    References:
    1 – Floating eggs of marine fish -the size, buoyancy, and rising speed, Yuji Tanaka, Tokyo University of Marine Seience and Technology, Dec 13, 2007.    Download a copy

    2 – Particle Dispersion under Tidal Bores: Application to Sediments and Fish Eggs, 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2010, Hubert Chanson and Kok-Keng Tan, University of Queensland, school of Civil Engineering

    3 – The egg size of salmon (Salmo salar) in Norwegian rivers, Aquaculture Volume 2, 1973, Pages 337-341 , Dag Aulstad, Trygve Gjedrem, The Agricultural University of Norway

    4 – The interrelation of the size of fish eggs, the date of spawning and the production cycle, J. Fish Biol. (1971) 3, 207-219, T. B. BAGENAL, Freshwater Biological Association, The Ferry House Download a copy

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