Are Microplastics Toxic to the Environment? Literature Review

Are Microplastics Toxic? Effects of Microplastics on the Environment

What are microplastics? Microplastic (MP) is a broad term used to describe microscopic plastics with sizes ranging from 1um to 5mm 1. Anything less than that can be considered nanoplastic (NP), which is also prevalent in the ocean. The shapes of microplastics can vary from fragments, fibers, pellets, film, and spheres2. The properties such as … Read more

Particle Dispersion Experiments in Plant Canopies

UV Fluorescent Tracer Microspheres

Fluorescent Microspheres in Particle Dispersion Experiment Fluorescent microspheres produced by Cospheric LLC were used as part of ongoing work to to conduct particle dispersion experiments in plant canopies and study the mechanisms of fungal epidemiology in vineyards. The University of Utah in collaboration with USDA Labs in Corvallis, OR performed five field particle dispersion campaigns … Read more

Microspheres in Drug Delivery Systems – 2 Essential Uses

Polystyrene Microspheres

Benefits of Microspheres in Drug Delivery There are numerous benefits of using microspheres in drug delivery due to their precise uniform dimensions, larger surface area per unit volume, as well as the ability to be surface-functioalized or loaded with active compounds and other additives. Typically microspheres in drug delivery are manufactured out of biodegradable materials … Read more

Use of Polyethylene Spheres to Study Effect of Microplastics Transport in Soil

Effect on Microplastics Transport

Despite great general benefits derived from plastic use, accumulation of plastic material in ecosystems, and especially microplastics, is becoming an increasing environmental concern. Microplastic has been extensively studied in aquatic environments, with very few studies focusing on soils. Overview of the study on microplastics transport in soil: Scientists tested the idea that microplastic particles (polyethylene … Read more

Neutrally Buoyant in Water – Microspheres with Specific Gravity of 1g/cc

Suspension of microspheres in water enables the visualization and characterization of fluid flow and testing the capability of devices to withstand particulate matter in the fluid stream, ensuring that microspheres do not settle and do not float on the surface. Most of these polymer microspheres are at least moderately opaque and clearly visible in water, clear or translucent liquids.

Phosphorescent Microspheres – Long Afterglow Particles

Phosphorescent microspheres in particle sizes 10 to 600 microns are now available from Cospheric LLC. These phosphorescent particles are 90% spherical and appear to be off-white under ordinary daylight or regular room illumination.? However, when the lights are turned off these phosphorescent particles exhibit phosphorescent yellow-green after-glow. The spheres have tight particle size distributions and … Read more

Microspheres for Coatings Applications (Opaque Polyethylene)

Microspheres are well known in the coatings industry for their use as low-surface-area fillers that offer benefits in viscosity and density control, solids content, application and flow characteristics.

Hemispherically Coated Spheres

Cospheric LLC, a Santa Barbara-based microtechnology company, recently launched a line of opaque polyethylene microspheres that act as a superior opacifying agent and provide maximum hiding power with just one monolayer of microspheres as small as 40 microns in diameter. Microspheres are manufactured in any color imaginable and even in combinations of two differently colored hemispheres.

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Exfoliating Beads: Clinical Study

Exfoliating beads have a long history in cosmetics, but we are unaware of previous studies on the effect of their regular use. A clinical study with 10 subjects shows that regular exfoliation leads to a reduction in the cell turnover time of the stratum corneum (SC) by about 15% (significant at the 95% level)

What is a Microsphere? Definition and Explanation.

Sourcing Microspheres - Monodisperse Silica
Conductive Bondline Spacer - Silver-Coated Silica Spheres
Conductive Bondline Spacer – Silver-Coated Silica Microspheres (Cospheric Product ID: SiO2MS-Ag)

Definition of a Microsphere:

There is a lot of confusion and uncertainty in the academic community as well as the industry on exactly what is a microsphere. Below is the definition of “microsphere” that we use, because it is clear and straight-forward:

Microsphere is a term used for a small solid spherical particle, with diameter in the micrometer range (typically 1 micron to 1000 micron (1mm)).

What a Microsphere is Not:

A microsphere is not the same as a microcapsule, because microcapsules typically consist of a flexible (deformable) shell encapsulating a fluid, which might be liquid or gas. Microspheres always have a solid shell. Even if the microsphere is technically hollow (containing gas inside), its shape is not significantly flexible or deformable.

A microsphere is not the same as a microparticle, because microparticle is a general term that refers only to the size of the granular material and does not provide information on the shape. Microspheres are always round and spherical. There are no sharp edges, oblong shapes, or debris.

What are Nanospheres? Silica Nanospheres
Monodisperse Silica Nanospheres (Cospheric Product ID: SiO2MS)

A microsphere is not the same as a nanopshere, because nanospheres have diameters on the nanoscale (typically between 1 nanometer and 1000 nanometers (1 micron)). Nano-diameters present a complete different characteristics, behaviors, and functionalities.

What are Microsphere Materials:

Microspheres are manufactured from various natural and synthetic materials. Glass microspheres, polymer microspheres, and ceramic microspheres are commercially available. Solid and hollow microspheres vary a lot in density and, therefore, are used for different applications. Hollow microspheres are typically used as additives to lower the density of a material. Solid microspheres have numerous applications depending on what material they are constructed of and what size they are.

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