## Accurate Modeling of Viruses – Spherical Particle Shape, Size, and Density

Spherical Particle Shape of Viruses and Droplets: Due to the global pandemic, there has been a big focus on Coronavirus research and a lot of pressure for researchers and scientists to understand how Coronavirus spreads, as well as how we can effectively stop that spread by implementing effective cleaning protocols, prevention of respiratory droplets traveling, … Read more

## Significance of Density of Powders: Bulk Density vs. True Particle Density

What is the density of material? Before we start talking specifically about measuring the density of powders, let’s look at the concept of measuring density in general. What does “density” mean? According to Encyclopedia Britannica, density is defined as mass of a unit volume of a material substance. The formula for density of a substance … Read more

## 3 Scenarios When Density of Microspheres Matters in Research

When is the density of microspheres important? Density of microspheres controls the buoyancy of each particle and its behavior in a system or process. Let’s look at three scenarios: (1) suspension of microspheres in a specific fluid, (2) fluid flow, performing flow visualizations, or particle image velocimetry, and (3) simulation or modeling of objects with specific density.

## Suspension of Hydrophobic Particles in Aqueous Solution – Density Gradients

Fortunately, there is a simple way to overcome the hydrophobic effect. It is called a surfactant, a detergent, or simply ?soap.? Surfactant is a magical molecule that has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties, which coats the particles and helps them mix into water. The same mechanism applies when we use soap to wash greasy dishes or stained clothes.

## Matching the Density of Particle and Fluid for PIV Applications

Density of particle vs. density of fluid in particle image velocimetry: Many flow visualization experiments are done in water but there are a variety of other liquids and even water-based solutions that will have differing densities whose velocity fields are being mapped or will be in the future. Therefore, having seed particles to match these … Read more

## Particle Image Velocimetry – Particle Size and Distribution

Particle size: Particle size is connected to many of the other parameters of seed particles in a PIV system. With size affecting visibility, flow conformity, and being integral in relation to pixel size. A rough number for ideal particle size is 1-100um though sizes in the nm and mm?s have been used for certain PIV … Read more

## Particle Image Velocimetry – Intro to Tracer Particle Parameters

PIV is a vast field with varying techniques and differing areas of research. Techniques vary from 2D PIV, only viewing velocity in a plane of the fluid system, to high speed TOMO PIV which views a 3D area of fluid and can be time resolved allowing for acceleration data to also be obtained. Another difference … Read more

## Particle Image Velocimetry and Tracer Particle Visibility

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) expresses a vast field with varying techniques and data acquisition methods. However, the main goal is providing an optical method of flow visualization. The exact information obtained depends on which method is used, with new algorithms and approaches being discovered constantly. There are generally two ways data is obtained PIV and … Read more

## Fluorescent Tracer Microspheres – Properties and Applications

Fluorescent microspheres are round spherical particles that emit bright colors when illuminated by UV light. Ability to emit intense color under UV (black light) illumination provides contrast and visibility of microspheres relative to background materials.